There are many kinds of iron and steel, iron and carbon alloy is divided into two categories of steel and pig iron, steel is a carbon content of 0.03% to 2% of the iron carbon alloy. Carbon steel is the most commonly used ordinary steel, smelting convenience, easy processing, low price, and in most cases can meet the use requirements, so the application is very common.
According to the carbon content, carbon steel is divided into low carbon steel, medium carbon steel and high carbon steel. With the increase of carbon content, the hardness and toughness of carbon steel decrease. Alloy steel and special steel, adding one or more alloying elements in steel on the basis of the change of microstructure and properties of steel, it has some special properties, such as high hardness, high wear resistance, high toughness, corrosion resistance, etc..
Iron alloy containing 2% carbon to 4.3% carbon is called pig iron. Pig iron is hard and crisp, but it is resistant to pressure and wear. According to the existing iron carbon in different forms can be divided into white iron, gray iron and ductile iron. White iron in the carbon distribution in the form of Fe3C, the fracture was silver white, hard and crisp, can not be processed mechanically, is the raw material of steelmaking, it is also known as steelmaking pig iron. The distribution of carbon graphite in Gray said, the fracture was gray, easy cutting, easy casting, wear resistance. If the carbon is spherical graphite, it is called ductile iron. Its mechanical properties and processability are close to that of steel. Special alloy elements are added to cast iron to obtain special cast iron, such as adding Cr, the abrasion resistance can be greatly improved, and it has a very important application under special conditions.
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